The Patient Access to Cellular Transplant (PACT) Act (HR 2498 / S 1268, 116th Congress) would amend the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1395ww) to provide explicit coverage of hematopoietic stem cell services, such as an allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT), under Medicare. The Act specifies that an allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplant is a procedure involving the infusion of hematopoietic stem cells from a donor to a recipient to revive hematopoietic function in an individual with an inherited or acquired deficiency in such system. According to the National Cancer Institute, the donor and recipient are often genetically similar (i.e., siblings) but can also be genetically unrelated.
According to a 2010 review of the procedure — Allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation: the state of the art — HCT is one tactic used to help individuals who have undergone high doses of treatments for other diseases (e.g., radiation and chemotherapy) to restore hematopoiesis (i.e., forming blood cells). Interestingly, HCT from a donor with a mutation in a gene involved in HIV transmission (i.e., the CCR5 gene) into a recipient with HIV was found to essentially cure the recipient.